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This LibGuide describes the CSI Library's resources and services that are relevant for learning and research in Psychology.

In-Text citations

In-text Citations 

An in-text citation is one of the ways of giving credit to the source in the body of the paper.

The three components of an in-text citation are the last name of the author, the year of the source, and the page number (if you are using a direct quotation).

There are two types of in-text  citations ; one  for direct quotes and one for paraphrasing.

Direct quotes: you are permitted to borrow a quote (1-2 sentences) and use it in your paper. You must use quotations when you use the exact words. You must take note of the exact location of that quote (I.e. the page number or paragraph number)

Paraphrasing: you are permitted to borrow the words or ideas of another author, as long as you rephrase it in your own words. For paraphrasing, the in-text citation needs to include the author and year, but not the page number.

There are two styles in how you include the in-text citation; within the narrative and at the end of the quotation.

Narrative format:

Example: Smith (2020) stated that, "on December 31 of each year, the sky is a deep purple" (p.31).

End of quotation:

Example: "On December 31 of each year, the sky is a deep purple" (Smith, 2020, p. 31)


Paraphrasing enables you to explain another person's ideas in your own words.

Paraphrasing allows you to summarize the information you found from other sources. You need to include the last name of the author and year, but not the page number.

Example: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

Example: It can be argued that APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).