Citation is an important part of the research process because …
Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you must cite the source using either a parenthetical citation, footnote, or endnote. In addition, a bibliography or list of works cited, is almost always placed at the end of your paper.
Parenthetical citations (also referred to as “in-text citations”) are abbreviated citations that direct readers to the full bibliographic citations listed in your works cited. In most cases, parenthetical citations include the author’s last name and the page number for the information cited.
Footnotes and endnotes contain full bibliographic citations for the first time a source is cited and abbreviated citations (author’s last name and page number) for each successive citation. The primary difference between footnotes and endnotes is that footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the same page where the references are made, while endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.
The precise format of your citations depends on which citation style you use.
More information about conducting research, writing and formatting papers, citing sources, and creating bibliographies is available in these guides:
A Writer’s Reference
Handbook for writing college papers and citing sources in APA, MLA, or Chicago style.
Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles
Guidance on how to cite sources and avoid plagiarism; covers all different citation styles (Chicago, MLA, APA, CSE, AMA, ACS, etc.) with examples drawn from a range of sources crossing all disciplines.
Craft of Research
Guide for planning, carrying out, and reporting on research for any field and at any level. Demonstrates how to choose a topic, plan and organize research, and draft and revise a report.
Purdue’s Online Writing Lab [OWL] for APA
Electronic reference source created by Purdue University for citing sources in APA format.
Purdue’s Online Writing Lab [OWL] for Chicago
Electronic reference source created by Purdue University for citing sources in Chicago format.
Purdue’s Online Writing Lab [OWL] for MLA
Electronic reference source created by Purdue University for citing sources in MLA format.
Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style
Instruction on how to write and publish scientific papers, including paragraphing, grammar, punctuation and spelling as well as how to present numbers, mathematical symbols and scientific notation.
Scientific Writing: A Reader and Writer’s Guide
Step-by-step guide to writing scientific research papers as well as useful tips for keeping readers engaged.
Work of Writing: Insights and Strategies for Academics and Professionals
Instruction on producing lively and engaging academic writing; deals with the complex issues of purpose, audience, genre, and voice as opposed to technical details of structure and format.
Citation tools, or bibliographic citation managers, allow you to collect and store citations for books and articles found in library catalogs and databases. Some can be integrated with word processing applications (like Microsoft Word) to automatically generate in-text citations and bibliographies in whatever citation format you specify. Citation tools help you better manage your research sources and save you alot of time when writing your papers.
Web-based bibliographic citation manager that allows researchers to create their own personal database of research references by importing records from library catalogs and online databases. Researchers can organize, store, and access their references from their online RefWorks account as well as automatically generate formatted citations and bibliographies in any style. This is a CSI Library subscription resource. For college login information, contact the Library Reference Desk (718.982.4010) or Naomi Gold (718.982.4097).
Web-based bibliographic citation manager available through Web of Knowledge that allows researchers to store and organize references imported from databases and automatically generate formatted bibliographies. Registration is required. If you already have a Web of Knowledge account, you can use the same login to access EndNote Web.
A free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources. Zotero offers an easy way to collect, tag, and share citations simply by clicking a button in your web browser.
KnightCite is a free online citation generator. Simply enter information about the item you want to cite (author, title, publisher, etc.) and KnightCite will automatically generate a properly formatted citation in the style you choose (MLA, APA, or Chicago). Registered users can save and order lists of citations for a bibliography and export them into a Microsoft Word document.
Citation Machine is free online citation generator. Users can enter information about the source they need to cite (author, title, publisher, etc.) and Citation Machine will automatically generate standard bibliographic and in-text citations in the style of their choice (MLA, APA, Turabian, or Chicago).