Started in 2015, this investigative report from The Washington Post offers historical data on police shootings. The report finds that "although half of the people shot and killed by police are White, Black Americans are shot at a disproportionate rate." Charts from figures from police shootings database show that "the rate at which Black Americans are killed is more than twice as high as the rate for White Americans." The article was updated with 2020 numbers on Feb 18, 2021.
Taken from the abstract, this article "discusses the improvement of policing process in Cincinnati, Ohio. Topics covered include the establishment of the Citizen Complaint Authority (CCA) in Cincinnati, the reasons that motivated the city government to adopt a far-reaching police reform and the city's efforts to further improve transparency, community engagement and diversity." Written by Nathalie Baptiste for The American Prospect, Summer 2015.
From the scientific journal, Nature, journalist Lynne Peoples examines a collection of newspaper reports of shootings by police. It raises the question "How do racial biases play into deadly encounters with the police?" This report also includes figures of deaths of police officers by shootings and other criminal acts. (September 2019, v.573, pages 24-26)
This podcast is part of a series about hope from "To the Best of Our Knowledge" from WI Public Radio. Inspired by stories of police brutality and the Rodney King beating, civil rights attorney Connie Rice says she declared "war" on the LAPD in the 1990s. These days, she trains and supervises 50 officers in one of Los Angeles' toughest communities. 13:14mins. Original air date December 21, 2014. Post date June 5, 2020.
From NPR, the series "Throughline" presents the origins of policing in America. It features Khalil Gibran Muhammad, Professor at Harvard Kennedy School and author of The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban American. Caution: some descriptions of graphic violence and heavy content included. 64mins. June 4, 2020.
Author David A. Harris, Professor of Law, takes a look at two decades of racial profiling by American police departments. He answers the questions: Where does the practice stand now? What evidence exists on how it works to achieve crime-fighting and public safety goals? and What effects does the practice have in the communities supposedly served by aggressive forms of policing? David A. Harris is Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh and author of Racial Profiling Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work (2002); Good Cops: The Case for Preventive Policing (2005); and Failed Evidence: Why Law Enforcement Resists Science (2012). This article was published in Criminal Justice, v43:4; Winter 2020.
The author's abstract states "Using millions of records of police-citizen interactions alongside officer interviews, I evaluate the impact of a change to the protocol for stopping criminal suspects on police performance. An interrupted time series analysis shows the directive produced an immediate increase in the rate of stops producing evidence of the suspected crime. Interviewed officers said the order signaled increased managerial scrutiny, leading them to adopt more conservative tactics. Procedural changes can quickly and dramatically alter officer behavior, suggesting a reform strategy sometimes forestalled by psychological and personality-driven accounts of police reform." Published in Journal of Politics by by Jonathan Mummolu, Princeton University (Jan 2018, v80:1, p1-15).
This article discusses the efforts and outcomes made by English and Welsh police forces to increase ethnic minority from 2000 - 2010. Published by Sounman Hong, Yonsei University (Public Administration Review, Mar/Apr 201, v77:2, p195-205).
The author of this article presents the "game of imperfect information between residents and a municipal police chief to show that a chief's inability to prevent officer behavior that residents perceive to be abusive, coupled with resident unwillingness to assist police in the aftermath of this behavior, creates an incentive for the chief to choose and learn about new policing strategies that rely less on resident assistance." This article was written by Andrew McCall and published in the Journal of Politics (July 2019, v 81:3, p1133-1142).